The nexus between housing, land and property rights and women’s empowerment and participation in decision making has two key dimensions: one related to the enjoyment of their HLP rights and one to their participation in land-related processes. Housing land and property rights are an essential precondition for women to feel safe, respected and legitimate members of their families, communities and societies. Land and property rights are a crucial factor in defining and enhancing women’s status and participation in municipal planning, community decision-making and even local elections. As such, they are an essential enabler of women’s empowerment and participation. On the other hand, it is important to ensure women are empowered to meaningfully engage and participate in land-related processes, such as land administration and land management and also peace negotiations, implementation of peace agreements, and restitution or compensation in conflict-affected contexts.