Publications Research papers

Review of recent events in Lebanon (2011–2020) and their effect on land degradation

In light of the review of issues and approaches relevant to the case of Lebanon, the objectives of this research are the following: establishing a set of inclusive land degradation indicators, proposing a general holistic framework for the assessment of land degradation, providing an updated review of national land degradation in Lebanon, addressing several key relationships and elements: land and conflict; land and natural resources; land and socioeconomic development; urbanization, planning and development control; land-based investments and land planning policies and regulations.
Less than a decade away from the 2030 sustainable development horizon, Lebanon is in a state of crisis. As part of the Arab countries and the Mediterranean region, the history of Lebanon has long been associated with conflicts, wars, and instability. During the last decade alone, a series of intrinsic and extrinsic events rattled the country. These factors handicapped the country’s capacity to adapt to the advancing changes socially, technologically, and economically, generating a very vulnerable context. Internal factors arise from Lebanon’s fragile sociopolitical system, precarious institutional framework, and stagnant economy, while external factors are largely related to the country’s sensitive geopolitical position.